Deep learning approach for denoising low-SNR correlation plenoptic images

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Correlation Plenoptic Imaging (CPI) is a novel volumetric imaging technique that uses two sensors and the spatio-temporal correlations of light to detect both the spatial distribution and the direction of light. This novel approach to plenoptic imaging enables refocusing and 3D imaging with significant enhancement of both resolution and depth of field. However, CPI is generally slower than conventional approaches due to the need to acquire sufficient statistics for measuring correlations with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We address this issue by implementing a Deep Learning application to improve image quality with undersampled frame statistics. We employ a set of experimental images reconstructed by a standard CPI architecture, at three different sampling ratios, and use it to feed a CNN model pre-trained through the transfer learning paradigm U-Net architecture with VGG-19 net for the encoding part. We find that our model reaches a Structural Similarity (SSIM) index value close to 1 both for the test sample (SSIM = 0.87 ± 0.02) and in 5-fold cross validation (SSIM = 0.92±0.07); the results are also shown to outperform classic denoising methods, in particular for images with lower SNR. The proposed work represents the first application of Artificial Intelligence in the field of CPI and demonstrates its high potential: speeding-up the acquisition by a factor 20 over the fastest CPI so far demonstrated, enabling recording potentially 200 volumetric images per second. The presented results open the way to scanning-free real-time volumetric imaging at video rate, which is expected to achieve a substantial influence in various applications scenarios, from monitoring neuronal activity to machine vision and security.

Authors: Francesco Scattarella, Domenico Diacono, Alfonso Monaco, Nicola Amoroso, Loredana Bellantuono, Gianlorenzo Massaro, Francesco V. Pepe, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti & Milena D’Angelo

Publication location: Scientific reports

Date of publication: 10 November 2023


How to cite this article: Scattarella, F., Diacono, D., Monaco, A. et al. Deep learning approach for denoising low-SNR correlation plenoptic images. Sci Rep13, 19645 (2023).

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